The objective of this study was to assess long-term blood pressure control in resistant hypertension patients receiving Baroreflex Activation Therapy (BAT). Following completion of the randomized Rheos Pivotal Trial, patients participated in open-label, nonrandomized follow-up to assess safety and efficacy of BAT. Blood pressure reductions were measured relative to a pre-implant baseline as well as the results achieved at the completion of 1 year of follow-up in the randomized phase. Clinically significant responder status was assessed according to FDA-mandated criteria. Of the 322 patients implanted, 76% (n = 245) qualified as clinically significant responders, an additional 10% were indeterminate. Among long-term responders receiving BAT, the mean blood pressure drop was 35/16 mm Hg. Medication use was reduced by the end of the randomized phase and remained lower through the follow-up period. Among responders, 55% achieved goal blood pressures (<140 mm Hg or <130 mm Hg in diabetes or kidney disease). Blood pressures of all active patients remained stable from completion of the randomized phase through long-term follow-up. BAT substantially reduced arterial pressure for most patients participating in the Rheos Pivotal Trial. This blood pressure reduction or goal achievement was maintained over long-term follow-up of 22 to 53 months.